SYMRK

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Symbiosis receptor-like kinase [1]

mRNA & Protein Sequence

Uniprot: Q8LKX1

Lj 2.5 (Lj bottom arm of chromosome 2)

Lj microarray probeset mapping

Mutant

SYMRK [1]

  • no root hair curling
  • exaggerated swelling and branching in root hair
  • no entrapment of bacteria in infection pockets
  • no infection thread
  • no noudule primordia
  • root hairs swell with balloon-shaped deformations in the presence of Mesorhizobium loti. [2]
  • impaired in Ca2+ spiking [2]

Function

Nodule symbiosis

  • Required for root nodule symbiosis.[1]
  • Required for a symbiotic signal transduction pathway leading from the perception of microbial signal molecules to rapid symbiosis-related gene activation. [1]
  • Overexpression of SYMRK results in the activation and execution of the nodule organogenesis pathway in the absence of external symbiotic stimulation.[3]
  • Intracellular catalytic domain of symbiosis receptor kinase hyperactivates spontaneous nodulation in absence of rhizobia.[4]

Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis

  • Required for arbuscular mycorrhiza [1]
  • Required for a symbiotic signal transduction pathway leading from the perception of microbial signal molecules to rapid symbiosis-related gene activation. [1]
  • Overexpression of SYMRK triggers spontaneous AM-related signal transduction. [5]

Domains

  • a signal peptide - an extracellular domain - a transmembrane domain - an intracellular protein kinase domain [1]
  • extracytoplasmic region (three leucine-rich repeats (LRRs)- GDPC motif - a malectin-like domain (MLD)) - Protein kinase [5]
  • More domain function studies [4]

Expression

  • constitutively expressed in roots [1]
  • did not change upon treatment with NF or 24 h and 48 h after inoculation with M. loti [1]

Interactions

NFR5

  • Transcriptional regulation of NFR1, NFR5 and SYMRK is mutually independent. [2]
  • NFR5 forms a complex with the SYMRK version that remains after MLD release. (The ectodomain cleavage was independent of symbiotic stimulation) [5]

SIP1

  • Interacts with SYMRK. The C-terminal 184 amino acid residues of SIP1 are critical for its interaction with SYMRK protein kinase domain. [6]
  • No interaction between SIP1L and SYMRK. [7]

SIP2

  • SIP2 was found to form protein complex with SYMRK in vitro and in planta, and the interaction is specific. [8]
  • SYMRK is an inhibitor of SIP2 Kinase. [8]

Evolution

  • SYMRK perceives both mycorrhizal (fungal) and rhizobial (bacterial) signals through the extracellular LRR domain. [1]
  • SYMRK is required for root endosymbioses with Fankiabacteria (actinorhizal symbioses) [9]
  • The SYMRK kinase domain is highly conserved between legumes and actinorhizal plants. However, SYMRK extracellular regions are conserved between the two actinorhizal plants Casuarina glauca and Alnus glutinosa but highly variable between legumes and actinorhizal plants. [9]
  • CgSYMRK can complement the mycorrhizal and rhizobial symbioses defect in a LjSYMRK mutant. [9]
  • LjSYMRK can fully restore nodulation of Medicago with S. meliloti. [10]
  • In symrk-10 roots transformed with MtDMI2, DgSYMRK or TmSYMRK both AM and nodulation were restored. [10]
  • SYMRK versions of reduced length (encoding two LRRs only and a short N-terminal region) restore AM but not RNS in Lotus. [10]

Other

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 Stracke, Silke, et al. "A plant receptor-like kinase required for both bacterial and fungal symbiosis." Nature 417.6892 (2002): 959-962.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Radutoiu, Simona, et al. "Plant recognition of symbiotic bacteria requires two LysM receptor-like kinases." Nature 425.6958 (2003): 585-592.
  3. Ried, Martina Katharina, Meritxell Antolín-Llovera, and Martin Parniske. "Spontaneous symbiotic reprogramming of plant roots triggered by receptor-like kinases." Elife 3 (2014): e03891.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Saha, Sudip, et al. "Intracellular catalytic domain of symbiosis receptor kinase hyperactivates spontaneous nodulation in absence of rhizobia." Plant physiology 166.4 (2014): 1699-1708.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Antolín-Llovera, Meritxell, Martina K. Ried, and Martin Parniske. "Cleavage of the SYMBIOSIS RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE ectodomain promotes complex formation with Nod Factor Receptor 5." Current Biology 24.4 (2014): 422-427.
  6. Zhu, Hui, et al. "A novel ARID DNA-binding protein interacts with SymRK and is expressed during early nodule development in Lotus japonicus." Plant physiology 148.1 (2008): 337-347.
  7. Wang, Chao, et al. "Splice variants of the SIP1 transcripts play a role in nodule organogenesis in Lotus japonicus." Plant molecular biology 82.1-2 (2013): 97-111.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Chen, Tao, et al. "A MAP kinase kinase interacts with SymRK and regulates nodule organogenesis in Lotus japonicus." The Plant Cell 24.2 (2012): 823-838.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Gherbi, Hassen, et al. "SymRK defines a common genetic basis for plant root endosymbioses with arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi, rhizobia, and Frankiabacteria." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105.12 (2008): 4928-4932.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 Markmann, Katharina, Gábor Giczey, and Martin Parniske. "Functional adaptation of a plant receptor-kinase paved the way for the evolution of intracellular root symbioses with bacteria." PLoS Biol 6.3 (2008): e68.